How to make internal html links within a knol

You can build internal pointers into your knol

Citation
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Authors

Abstract

You can internally link various portions of your knol by employing internal html links. Here is how:

1. The use of, and the code for, an internal html link

   

     Google knol program provides some easy methods of making external html links, i.e., links to a html page different from the knol that an author is writing.  If you are not familiar with how to use external html links, click here to go to the Appendix.
An internal html link is different from an external html link in that the destination of the link is within the same document.  Why would anyone ever need that?  The answer is that there are circumstances when internal html link is useful.  
    Internal html linking may be useful tool for some writers, especially in lengthy knols.  Internal html linking within a knol may be used to remind a reader of a definition, or to direct to any other section that provides a detailed explanation. Also, such internal html linking may be listed in a custom made table of contents. While Google knol program can automatically generate a table of contents of a predefined format in the summary (See the top portion of this page below the title and above the “email,” “print,” and “favorate” sections), one may want to have a custom-made table of contents that shows the chapters and sections.  
    If you have the patience to work with the html file, you can build your own internal link. The length of this knol might seen daunting, but this is mainly because I used illustrations liberally to show a good working example. This is easier than it first looks. Try this out, and most likely you will see that making internal html links within a knol is easier than you thought!
    In short, here is the html code for an internal link, which I elaborate further in subsequent chapters:

1. At the pointing source (the text portion that you want your reader to click on):
<a href=”(the http page address identifying your knol)#(a name for the destination text portion)”>(the text you want to display at the pointing source portion)</a> 

(the http page address identifying your knol) for this knol is http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31, which is readily obtained from the address bar above.  The name for the destination text portion is the name that you assign to the portion that your link will send your reader to.  For example, if you want the reader to go to Chapter 7, you might want to use a name like C7, Chapter_7, Ch7, or something that will remind you that this link refers to a link to Chapter 7 (to help you not to get confused while writing the code).

2. At the pointing destination (the text portion that you want your reader to see after clicking):
<a name=”(the name for the destination text portion)”>(the text you want to display at the pointing destination)</a>

    The green color and the blue color emphasize that that portion of the text is the html code.  If the above formula is clear to you, you understand how to write the html internal linking code now.  Just skim through the rest and find out how to copy out of, and paste into, the knol html editor.  If your knol is short, you can edit the knol html editor directly without copying the contents into another editor.  If the above formula is not quite clear to you, then you will need to read further to understand what I mean here.

2. The First step: type the text as usual

    Type your text as usual. A sample text is provided below. All portions of the sample text are in dark blue color. The notes in small letters is NOT a part of the sample text.

Table of Contents

1. How to build an external link in a knol. (note: this line will be a first pointing source.)
2. How to build an internal link in a knol. (note: this line will be a second pointing source.)

2.1 A first example (note: this line will be a third pointing source.)
2.2 A second example (note: this line will be a fourth pointing source.)

……………….

(note: The table of contents end and the text of the main body of the knol will be typed below.)

1. How to build an external link in a knol. (note: this line will be a first pointing destination.)
Type a text.  Highlight the text.  Click on the link button.  Follow the prompt to add an external link.

2. How to build an internal link in a knol.  (note: this line will be a second pointing destination.)
This is what is explained in this knol.  This is easy if you follow the instructions below.. 

2.1 A first example  (note: this line will be a third pointing destination.)
The text of the first example would be typed here.
2.2 A second example  (note: this line will be a fourth pointing destination.)
The text of the second example would be typed here.
    

3. The second step: copy the html code onto a text editor


    Here is how the html text would look if you clicked on the “html” button and looked at the html code: (All exemplary html codes in this knol are in lavender color for your identification.) The black color portions represent the text that a writer actually types in. The lavender color portions are automatically generated by the knol html editor program to provide formatting.

</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>Table of Contents</span></span></span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> 1. How to build an external link in a knol.</span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>2. How to build an internal link in a knol.</span></span></span></div>
<blockquote class=”webkit-indent-blockquote” style=”margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>2.1 A first example</span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br>
</span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>2.2 A second example</span></span></blockquote>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>……………….</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>1. How to build an external link in a knol.</span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: separate; line-height: 19px; white-space: normal; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> </span></span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>Type a text.  Highlight the text.  Click on the link button.  Follow the prompt to add an external link.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: 18px; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>2. How to build an internal link in a knol.</span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: separate; line-height: 19px; white-space: normal; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> </span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>This is what is explained in this knol.  This is easy if you follow the instructions below. </span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>2.1 A first example</span></span><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><br>
</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>The text of the first example would be typed here.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>2.2 A second example</span></div>
<div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>The text of the second example would be typed here.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span>    </span><br> </div>


    Notice how long the html code is compared to the text you would type. Upon careful inspection, you will notice that most of text is related to formatting. Many formatting commands are redundant here. In fact, a good programmer is likely to make this code much more compact. As it turns out, ease of use in programming does not usually go with a compact code. But this is not the point here.

    The next thing to do is to copy the entire text of the portion you wish to modify to a text editor. Just click on the beginning of the file (or at least the portion that you want to edit), hold down the left click button, and then keep on scrolling down to the end of the text (or the end of the portion you want to work on). I find it easy to copy the entire file, although this may take some time. Once the text of the code is copied (into the copy buffer), then past the entire content of the text code into any text editing program such as Microsoft Notepad program or Microsoft Word or any other equivalent text editor.

4. The third step: place codes identifying the pointing sources.


4.1. Decide where to place the pointing sources of the links

    Most likely, a search function of the editor will be helpful (unless you can read the code fast and identify the text you are looking for easily). Let’s assume that we will make the following lines of the knol the pointing sources:

1. How to build an external link in a knol.
2. How to build an internal link in a knol.

2.1 A first example
2.2 A second example


    In other words, if you click on one of the four lines above, you want the display to move to the section of the text containing that material.  In order to place codes identifying the pointing sources, you need to generate names for the internal links.  The names of the internal links can be anything but here, let’s assume that they will be: C1, C2, S201, and S202.  Of course, the name of the link may be anything.  Any systematic names for the links will be fine.  But try to avoid arbitrary names.  For example, “dog,” “cat,” “fox,” etc. might strain your vocabulary of animals, let alone the possibility of a confusion while writing a code!).

4.2. Figure out the http address of your knol

    
Once you determine the names of the internal links, you need some additional information on your own knol. Unless you opened up a new knol and has not exited for the first time, your knol will display an internet address that looks like the following during the editing:

http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#edit

(Here, NN stands for a number that Google assigns to each of your knol. NN may be a single digit number, a double digit number, or a triple digit number depending on how many knols you have written.)
    If you look at the address bar of this page while you are reading this article, you will most likely see the following:
    When I edit this knol, this would change to the following:
    Here, the equivalent of “http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#” in the above formula is “http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#&#8221;
The web address of the page of your knol is: http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#
4.3. Generate the full reference names of the internal links
    The “full reference names” of the internal links shall be the combination of the web address of the page of your knol and the names of the internal links (the names that you made up just now.)
http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#(internal link name)
    For example, if the names of the internal links are C1, C2, S201, and S202, the full reference names of the internal links will be:
http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#C1
http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#C2
http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#S201
http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/NN#S202
In the case of this knol, the full reference names would be:
ttp://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#C1, etc.
4.4. Insert the codes for the pointing sources (See the green text portions that are inserted in the example):
    Two codes are inserted for each text of the pointing source. A pre-source text code, i.e., the code that is placed before the text at the source is:
<a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/(your name)/(title of the knol)/(12digit identifier)/(2 digit number)#(internal link name)”>
    A post-source text code, i.e., the code that is placed after the text at the destination is: </a>
    A specific example for this knol would be:
<a href=”ttp://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#C1)”> and </a>
    The following is an example for our example code after inserting the codes for the pointing sources. Inserted portions are colored in green (the green color texts represent the only modifications to the code):

</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>Table of Contents</span></span></span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#C1″&gt; 1. How to build an external link in a knol.</a></span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#C2″&gt;2. How to build an internal link in a knol.</a></span></span></span></div>
<blockquote class=”webkit-indent-blockquote” style=”margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#S201″&gt;2.1 A first example</a></span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br>
</span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#S202″&gt;2.2 A second example</a></span></span></blockquote>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>……………….</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>1. How to build an external link in a knol.</span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: separate; line-height: 19px; white-space: normal; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> </span></span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>Type a text.  Highlight the text.  Click on the link button.  Follow the prompt to add an external link.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: 18px; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>2. How to build an internal link in a knol.</span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: separate; line-height: 19px; white-space: normal; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> </span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>This is what is explained in this knol.  This is easy if you follow the instructions below. </span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>2.1 A first example</span></span><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><br>
</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>The text of the first example would be typed here.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>2.2 A second example</span></div>
<div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>The text of the second example would be typed here.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span>    </span><br> </div>

    Don’t forget to insert </a> to the end of each text for a pointing source. </a> means that the effect of the pointing stops at that location.

5. The fourth step: place codes identifying the pointing destinations.


    Now that you put the codes for the pointing sources, i.e, which locations of the text will trigger jumping to another portion of the text, you now need to put the codes that tells the program where to go, i.e., the destination of the internal link. All you need to do is to place the following codes before and after the text at the pointing destination:

    A pre-destination text code, i.e., the code that is placed before the text at the destination is: 
<a name=”(internal link name)”>
    A post-destination text code, i.e., the code that is placed after the text at the destination is: </a>
    (The post-source text code and the post-destination text code are the same)
    A specific example for this knol would be:
        <a name=”C1″> and </a>


    The following is an example for our example code after inserting the codes for the pointing destinations. See below for the blue inserted portions (the blue color texts represent the only modifications to the code at this time.):

</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>Table of Contents</span></span></span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#C1″&gt; 1. How to build an external link in a knol.</a></span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#C2″&gt;2. How to build an internal link in a knol.</a></span></span></span></div>
<blockquote class=”webkit-indent-blockquote” style=”margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 0px;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#S201″&gt;2.1 A first example</a></span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br>
</span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: collapse; line-height: normal; white-space: pre-wrap; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a href=”http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#S202″&gt;2.2 A second example</a></span></span></blockquote>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>……………….</span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></div>

<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: large;”><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a name=”C1″>1. How to build an external link in a knol.</a></span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: separate; line-height: 19px; white-space: normal; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> </span></span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>Type a text.  Highlight the text.  Click on the link button.  Follow the prompt to add an external link.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”font-size: 18px; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”><a name=”C2″>2. How to build an internal link in a knol.</a></span></span><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”border-collapse: separate; line-height: 19px; white-space: normal; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”> </span></span></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; padding-top: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-bottom: 0px; padding-left: 0px; border-top-width: 0px; border-right-width: 0px; border-bottom-width: 0px; border-left-width: 0px; border-style: initial; border-color: initial; “><span class=”Apple-style-span” style=”color: rgb(53, 28, 117);”>This is what is explained in this knol.  This is easy if you follow the instructions below. </span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><br> </span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><a name=”S201″>2.1 A first example</a></span></span><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><br>
</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>The text of the first example would be typed here.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”><a name=”S202″>2.2 A second example</a></span></div>
<div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span style=”color:rgb(53, 28, 117)”>The text of the second example would be typed here.</span></div> <div style=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;padding-top:0px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:0px;padding-left:0px;border-top-width:0px;border-right-width:0px;border-bottom-width:0px;border-left-width:0px;border-style:initial;border-color:initial”><span>    </span><br> </div>

    Once again, don’t forget to insert </a> to the end of each text for a pointing destination. </a> means that the effect of the pointing stops at that location.

 6. The fifth step: Put the revised code into your html editor screen.


    Now, paste the text back to the html text screen of your knol.  Click on “update” on the html screen.  Make sure that your are pasting to the exact area that you copied the original text out of.  (This is why it helps to copy all the text of the code.  Your screen should immediately update upon exiting the html editor screen. 
    At this point, our example text should look like this:
Table of Contents

1. How to build an external link in a knol.
2. How to build an internal link in a knol.

2.1 A first example
2.2 A second example

……………….

1. How to build an external link in a knol. 
Type a text.  Highlight the text.  Click on the link button.  Follow the prompt to add an external link.

2. How to build an internal link in a knol. 
This is what is explained in this knol.  This is easy if you follow the instructions below.. 

2.1 A first example
The text of the first example would be typed here.
2.2 A second example
The text of the second example would be typed here.
    

    The texts with light blue underlines signify that they are pointing sources of a link (internal in this case) and the light blue texts without any underlines signify that they are pointing destination of the links.  Once you save your changes and exit the edit mode, you can click on the text of the pointing source and confirm that clicking sends your screen to the destination. 
    Here is examples of using internal links within a knol:

    If the explanation in this knol has been clear to you, congratulations!  If not, shame on me for failing to explaining it to you in an understandable way.  But I can help you try to understand it again.  
    If what code to use for the pointing source is not clear to you, you can later click here and look at the green text portions and compare them with the html address of this knol (which you can see from the address bar of your browser). If your browser does not display an address bar, you can change the display setting of your browser to show this. Note that I gave the name S44 to this internal link.  Look at the address bar after clicking on that blue “here” word above.  You should see http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#S44 after clicking on the “here” word above.
    If what code to use for the pointing destination is not clear to you, click here and look at the blue text portions and compare them with the html address of this knol.  Note that I gave the name S45 to this internal link.  Look at the address bar after clicking on that blue “here” word above.  You should see http://knol.google.com/k/byeongju-park/how-to-make-internal-html-links-within/2zvfgrgyend5c/31#S45 after clicking on the “here” word above.

 (Normally, the portion of the text with an internal link will be turned into blue color, but I changed the color to prevent confusion by any reader while reading the upper portion of the text.)

    As suggested above, the internal links may be employed in a custom-made Table of Contents.  To illustrate the point who are not quite sure how it would work, here are some example of my own knols that employ internal html links in the table of contents: Dokdo Island, Gojoseon, Why is Dokdo a Korean island, and Takeshima a fiction?  
    Here is a review of the difference between an external html link and an internal html link to ensure that you understand the difference.  If you click on any of the above three listed knols of mine, you would be clicking on “external links.”  If you go to the top of this knol by clicking here, you would be clicking on an “internal link.”  The previous sentence and the italic paragraphs above include examples of using internal html links in a knol outside the table of contents.  The three knols listed above includes examples of using internal html links in a knol within the table of contents.
    I hope things are crystal clear by now.  But then, once in a while, there are some unexpected problems.  Common sense and hard thinking will solve most problems.  However, if you really get stuck, you can contact me, but try to read this knol slowly and put in some decent effort beforehand.

7. Appendix

7.1. External html links
     By highlighting the entirety of the above line and then clicking on “format” during editing, and then by selecting “heading,” I made the text of “1. Why would anyone want to build an internal link” appear in the summary. The link in the summary is an example of “automatic internal links” that Google knol enables for everyone.  
    If other knols or internet pages need to be linked to a text within a knol, Google knol provides an easy way of proving such a link through the link button provided above.  This link button above allows linking of a text with external destinations in general.  Such links to an external web page are herein called “external links.”
    However, the function of linking a source text within a knol to a destination text within the same knol is not provided by the existing Google knol tool icons. Such links to another portion of the text within the same knol is herein referred to as “internal links” or “internal html links.”  To return to the top, click here.
7.2. Knol html editor
    Knol html editor employs general html codes.  Those who are familiar with html codes may use their programming skills here. A particular method of using html codes, i.e., how to use it for internal html linking, has been demonstrated in this knol.  Here are some additional hints:
    Hint 1 for html editing: <font size=”?”> (? is a positive integer) means that the font size in the applicable paragraph will be the number of ?. Typical numbers for ? are 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

    Hint 2 for html editing: When you copy a knol to make another knol, the internal links will be pointing to the old knol. This is because the code does not automatically get updated upon copying. The Google knol program is not that smart. You just need to go into the html editor and change the pre-source text codes before the text of the pointing sources. Similarly, upon translation into a foreign language, the translated text will point to the text on the translated page, not the correct internal text. The same fixing in the html editor addresses the problem